What is Skin Lesions?

What is Skin Lesions

What are Skin Lesions?

A skin lesion is a part of the skin that has an abnormal growth or appearance compared to the skin around it. Skin lesions can be present at birth or acquired over a person’s lifetime. They can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). In this blog post, we will explore the different types, causes, diagnoses, and treatments of skin lesions.

Types of Skin Lesions

Skin lesions can be classified into two categories: primary and secondary. Primary skin lesions are the original or initial changes in the skin, such as a mole, a wart, or a blister. Secondary skin lesions result from irritation, infection, or manipulation of primary skin lesions, such as a crust, a scar, or an ulcer.

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Some examples of primary skin lesions are:

Macule: A flat, discoloured spot on the skin less than 1 cm in diameter, such as a freckle or a birthmark.
Patch: A large macule that is more than 1 cm in diameter, such as a vitiligo patch or a port-wine stain.
Papule: A small, raised bump on the skin that is less than 0.5 cm in diameter, such as an acne pimple or a mole.
Plaque: A large pimple that is more than 0.5 cm in diameter, such as a psoriasis plaque or a wart.
Nodule: A solid, round or oval lump that extends deeper into the skin than a papule, such as a lipoma or a cyst.
Tumor: A large nodule that may be benign or malignant, such as a melanoma or a basal cell carcinoma.
Vesicle: A small, fluid-filled blister on the skin that is less than 0.5 cm in diameter, such as a herpes simplex lesion or a chickenpox lesion.
Bulla: A large vesicle that is more than 0.5 cm in diameter, such as a blister from a burn or an insect bite.
Pustule: A vesicle that contains pus, such as an acne pimple or an impetigo lesion.
Wheal: A raised, red, itchy area on the skin that may change shape and size, such as an urticaria (hives) lesion or an insect bite reaction.

Some examples of secondary skin lesions are:

Crust: A dried layer of blood, serum, or pus that covers a wound or a lesion, such as a scab from a cut or an impetigo lesion.
Scale: A thin flake of dead skin cells that sheds from the surface of the skin, such as dandruff or psoriasis scales.
Lichenification: A thickening and hardening of the skin with increased skin markings due to chronic scratching or rubbing, such as in atopic dermatitis or lichen simplex chronicus.
Erosion: A loss of the superficial layer of the skin (epidermis) that does not extend into the deeper layer (dermis), such as in aphthous ulcers or herpes simplex lesions.
Ulcer: A loss of both the epidermis and the dermis that may expose underlying tissues, such as in pressure ulcers or diabetic ulcers.
Fissure: A linear crack in the skin that may extend into the dermis, such as in an athlete’s foot or cheilitis.
Scar: A permanent change in the skin due to the healing of a wound or a lesion, such as in acne scars or surgical scars.
Keloid: An abnormal overgrowth of scar tissue that extends beyond the original wound or lesion, such as in-ear piercings or burns.

Causes of Skin Lesions

Skin lesions can have various causes depending on their type and location. Some common causes are:

Genetic factors: Some skin lesions are inherited from parents or result from mutations in genes, such as moles, birthmarks, freckles, albinism, neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, etc.
Environmental factors: Some skin lesions are caused by exposure to external agents or conditions, such as sunburns, allergic reactions, contact dermatitis, insect bites, chemical burns, etc.
Infectious agents: Some skin lesions are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or other microorganisms that invade the skin or mucous membranes.

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